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North America: Origin and The struggle for strategic planning, Page 1. The struggle for strategic planning in European higher education: the case of Portugal.
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Maria de Lourdes Machado Grimes of Democracy without constitutional liberalism is producing centralized regimes, the erosion of liberty, ethnic competition, conflict and war. The Innovation Americans completed the last stage of People of color all over the globe rose to claim their place in the human family as full and Spanish and Portuguese. Rebecca Atencio These were the convictions of the Founders. The radiance of the nation would in the first instance be territorial, within the Western Hemisphere.
But in the last instance, that radiance would be more than territorial: it would be moral and political. Once the current boundaries of the United States were largely reached, the same sense of the future took more commercial than territorial form, looking west rather than south. But does that content you? I trust it does not. You want the commerce of the world. This must be looked for on the Pacific. The nation that draws most from the earth and fabricates most, and sells the most to foreign nations, must be and will be the great power of the earth.
With the outbreak of the Spanish—American War, classical inter-imperialist conflict brought colonies in the Pacific and the Caribbean, and full-fledged entrance into the ranks of the great powers. Food shortages increasingly impacted urban areas, caused by military purchases, transportation bottlenecks, financial confusion, and administrative mismanagement. Food riots became more common and more violent, and ready the angry populace for withering political attacks on the czarist regime.
The countryside also was becoming restive.
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Soldiers were increasingly insubordinate, particularly the newly recruited peasants who faced the prospect of being used as cannon fodder in the inept conduct of the war. The bad situation continued to deteriorate. Increasing conflict between the tsar and the Duma destroyed popular and elite support for the old regime.
In early , deteriorating rail transport caused acute food and fuel shortages, which resulted in escalating riots and strikes. Authorities summoned troops to quell the disorders in Petrograd as St.
Petersburg had been called since September , to Russianize the Germanic name. In troops had fired on demonstrators and saved the monarchy, but in the troops turned their guns over to the angry crowds. Public support for the tsarist regime simply evaporated in , ending three centuries of Romanov rule. Italy joined the Allies in , but was poorly prepared for war.
Loans from Britain paid for nearly all its war expenses. The Italian army of , men was poorly led and lacked heavy artillery and machine guns.
African independence movements
The industrial base was too small to provide adequate amounts of modern equipment, and the old-fashioned rural base did not produce much of a food surplus. Before the war the government had ignored labor issues, but now it had to intervene to mobilize war production.
With the main working-class Socialist party reluctant to support the war effort, strikes were frequent and cooperation was minimal, especially in the Socialist strongholds of Piedmont and Lombardy. The government imposed high wage scales, as well as collective bargaining and insurance schemes. The workforce at the Ansaldo munitions company grew from 6, to , as it manufactured 10, artillery pieces, 3, warplanes, 95 warships and 10 million artillery shells.
At Fiat the workforce grew from 4, to 40, Inflation doubled the cost of living. Industrial wages kept pace but not wages for farm workers. Discontent was high in rural areas since so many men were taken for service, industrial jobs were unavailable, wages grew slowly and inflation was just as bad. In terms of munitions production, the 15 months after April involved an amazing parade of mistakes, misguided enthusiasm, and confusion. Americans were willing enough, but they did not know their proper role.
Wilson was unable to figure out what to do when, or even to decide who was in charge. Typical of the confusion was the coal shortage that hit in December Because coal was by far the most major source of energy and heat, a grave crisis ensued.
There was in fact plenty of coal being mined, but 44, loaded freight and coal cars were tied up in horrendous traffic jams in the rail yards of the East Coast. Two hundred ships were waiting in New York harbor for cargo that was delayed by the mess. The solution included nationalizing the coal mines and the railroads for the duration, shutting down factories one day a week to save fuel, and enforcing a strict system of priorities.
Only in March did Wilson finally take control of the crisis . The war saw many women gaining access to and taking on jobs traditionally assigned to men. Many worked on the assembly lines of factories, producing trucks and munitions. The morale of the women remained high, as millions join the Red Cross as volunteers to help soldiers and their families. With rare exceptions, the women did not protest the draft. Samuel Gompers , head of the AFL, and nearly all labor unions were strong supporters of the war effort.
They minimized strikes as wages soared and full employment was reached. The AFL unions strongly encouraged their young men to enlist in the military, and fiercely opposed efforts to reduce recruiting and slow war production by the anti-war labor union called the Industrial Workers of the World IWW and also left-wing Socialists.
The AFL membership soared to 2. In , the Union tried to make their gains permanent and called a series of major strikes in meat, steel and other industries. The strikes, all of which failed, forced unions back to their position around While Germany rapidly mobilized its soldiers, it had to improvise the mobilization of the civilian economy for the war effort.
It was severely handicapped by the British blockade that cut off food supplies, machinery and raw materials. Walter Rathenau played the key role in convincing the War Ministry to set up the War Raw Materials Department Kriegsrohstoffabteilung—"KRA" ; he was in charge of it from August to March and established the basic policies and procedures.
His senior staff were on loan from industry. KRA focused on raw materials threatened by the British blockade , as well as supplies from occupied Belgium and France. It set prices and regulated the distribution to vital war industries. It began the development of ersatz raw materials. KRA suffered many inefficiencies caused by the complexity and selfishness KRA encountered from commerce, industry, and the government.
Cartels were created and small firms merged into larger ones for greater efficiency and ease of central control. Even though there is a believe that the inequality among the German population only increased during the WW1 , a number of studies have shown the opposite. It was proved that the income of the majority of the enterprises declined proportionally to the loss in the real wage.
Moreover, the international corporate profits e. The only companies that have undergone the rise in profits were related to the chemical , metal and machinery industries. The military took an increasingly dominant role in setting economic priorities and in direct control of vital industries. It was usually inefficient, but it performed very well in aircraft. The army set prices and wages, gave out draft exemptions, guaranteed the supply of credit and raw materials, limited patent rights, and supervised management—labor relationships.
The industry expanded very rapidly with high quality products and many innovations, and paid wages well above the norm for skilled workers. Eight national war loans reached out to the entire population and raised million marks. It proved almost impossible to borrow money from outside. The national debt rose from only 5 billion marks in to billion in These bonds became worthless in because of hyperinflation. As the war went on conditions deteriorated rapidly on the home front, with severe food shortages reported in all urban areas by Causes involved the transfer of many farmers and food workers into the military, an overburdened railroad system, shortages of coal, and the British blockade that cut off imports from abroad.
The winter of — was known as the "turnip winter", because that vegetable, usually fed to livestock, was used by people as a substitute for potatoes and meat, which were increasingly scarce. Thousands of soup kitchens were opened to feed the hungry people, who grumbled that the farmers were keeping the food for themselves.
On War, by General Carl von Clausewitz
Even the army had to cut the rations for soldiers. Morale of both civilians and soldiers continued to sink. In the Ottoman Empire Turkish nationalists took control before the war began. They drove out Greeks and Armenians who had been the backbone of the business community, replacing them with ethnic Turks who were given favorable contracts but who lacked the international connections, credit sources, and entrepreneurial skills needed for business.
Turkish wheat was in high demand, but transportation was rudimentary and not much of it reached Germany. The war cut off imports except from Germany. Prices quadrupled. The Germans provided loans and supplied the army with hardware, especially captured Belgian and Russian equipment. Other supplies were in short supply; the soldiers were often in rags. Medical services were very bad and illness and death rates were high. Most of the Ottoman soldiers deserted when they had the opportunity, so the force level shrank from a peak strength of , in to only , in The Austro-Hungarian monarchical personal union of the two countries was a result of the Compromise of Kingdom of Hungary lost its former status after the Hungarian Revolution of However following the reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states became co-equal within the Empire.
In comparison with Germany and Britain, the Austro-Hungarian economy lagged behind considerably, as sustained modernization had begun much later in Austria-Hungary. The Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States , Germany, and Britain. Except for the Pragmatic Sanction of , common laws never existed in the Empire of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary.
There was no common citizenship: one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both.